Saturday, March 28, 2020
Stand and Deliver Discussion Questions What kind of leader is Escalante? In what ways did Escalante (and/or other charac ters) portray Kouzes Posner's Practices of Exemplary Leadership? What role did the school principal play in Escalante's program? Is holding the example of Jaime Escalante up to America and to beginning teachers through the film "Stand and Deliver" a realistic representation of how prospective instructors can be successful in their careers in inner-city public schools? Or , is it an example of why, in inner-city schools and elsewhere, approximately 50% of teachers leave the profession within the first five years? Was Jaime Escalante a true improvement in the system? Or not? Was he an exemplary teacher? Was he a model of change? Or was he a one-of-a-kind flash in the pan? Was h e an example of how change happen s in public schools? An example of why education will not improve, despite the best efforts of the best teachers? Are standout, brilliant teachers like Escalante the answer to a distressed educational system? "Savior" teachers like Olmos's Escalante, Sidney Poitier in "To Sir with Love," (1967) or Michelle Pfeiffer in "Dangerous Minds" (1995) all make for good drama. They sell tickets to the movie theater to moviegoers who wish to be en tertained. But does the exceptional make for good policy when it comes to the everyday exigencies of school reform? Are there thousands of charismatic, highly-skilled, expertly trained, and experienced school teachers ready to imitate Escalante in similar circumstances? Are they r eady to contribute to a qualitative shift in the quality of instruction in struggling schools? Are they willing to work 60 hour weeks giving their all with study sessions before school, visits to student's homes - on their own time? Willing to do it for $40,000 per year? And when success in your job is far from assured? Escalante after all, in real life, found his position and program at Garfield undermined by the jealousies of the teachers' union and school administration second-guessing. Can a talented and dedicated leader thrive over the long-term in the dysfunctional, unprofessional atmosphere which so often typifies the American public school system? Source: http://www.rjgeib.com/biography/inner-city-blues/stand-and-deliver-review.htm
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Chemistry Abbreviations Starting With the Letter E Chemistry abbreviations and acronyms are common in all fields of science. This collection offers common abbreviations and acronyms beginning with the letter E used in chemistry and chemical engineering. Abbreviations With the Letter E e - electrone- - electronE - EnergyE1520 - Propylene GlycolEA - Epoxy AdhesiveEA - Ethyl AcetateEAA - Ethylene Acrylic AcidEAM - Embedded Atom MethodEAS - Electrophilic Aromatic SubstitutionEB - Electrode BarrierEBSD - Electron BackScatter DiffractionEBT - Eriochrome Black T indicatorEC - Electron CaptureEC - Ethyl CarbonateECD - Electron Capture DetectorECH - Enoyl-CoA HydrataseEDI - Electrical De-IonizationEDP - Ethylene Diamine PyrocatecholEDT - 1,2-Ethane DiThiolEDTA - Ethylene-Diamine-Tetra-Acetic acidEE - Ether ExtractEEC - Equilibrium Equivalent ConcentrationEEC - Evaporation Emission ControlEEEI - Effective Electron-Electron InteractionEER - Equilibrium Exchange RateEET - Excitation Energy TransferEG - Ethylene GlycolEGE - Ethylene Glycol EtherEGO - Exhaust Gas OxygenEGR - Entropy Gradient ReversalEGTA - Ethylene Glycol Tetraacetic AcidEHF - Extremely High FrequencyEIC - Electromagnetically-Induced ChiralityELF - Extremely Low FrequencyEM - ElectroMagneticEM - Elevated Moistu reEMA - Ethylene Methacrylic AcidEMF - ElectroMotive ForceEN - Ethylene NaphthalateEOF - ElectroOsmotic FlowEP - Ethylene PolypropyleneEPA - Environmental Protection AgencyEPD - End Point DilutionEPDM - Ethyl Propyl Diene MonomerEPH - Extractable Petroleum HydrocarbonsEPI - EPInephrineEq - EquivalentEr - ErbiumERW - Electrolyzed Reduced WaterEs - EinsteiniumES - Excited StateETOH - Ethyl AlcoholEu - EuropiumEV - Exceptional VacuumEVA - Ethylene Vinyl AcetateEVOH - Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
A Broadening Understanding of Islam - Essay Example In the bestselling The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, there is a gut-wrenching scene about a woman being stoned to death because she had not conducted herself according to Islamic law. Another bestseller entitled Reading Lolita in Tehran chronicles a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s book club that must meet clandestinely to read Western books that have been outlawed by the Islamic fundamentalists in power at the time. Texts such as these lead us to believe that Islam is an antiquated and oppressive religion that is forced upon people by their governments. If people do willingly participate in Islamic rituals, media sources often jump to the conclusion that they have been brainwashed to do so. Yet TysonÃ¢â¬â¢s article tells an entirely different story about Muslims in Turkmenistan who risked persecution at the hands of the Soviet government to worship at sacred shrines. Thus the article very much helps to balance out the often one-sided depiction of theocratic states that force fundamentalist Islam onto its powerless subjects. Not only did the article expand my perspective as to the different contexts in which Muslims have practiced their faith, David Tyson also broadened my idea of how Muslims worship. While mosques, prayer rugs and religious observances such as Ramadan are very much part of the image depicted by the media, I was not aware that pilgrimages had so much religious significance. Tyson details the many holy sites that are significant to Turkmens and shows how they played such an important role in preserving Islam in the face of the Soviet Union that sought to eradicate it from their empire.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Legalization of medicinal marijuana - Research Paper Example Recent inclusion will go to be New York. Over the years pro medicinal marijuana people has argued that it can be effective and helpful for different deadly diseases like cancer, multiple sclerosis, AIDS, pain, epilepsy and glaucoma. In support of their argument those protagonists of medicinal marijuana has come up with lots of medicinal studies done by prominent medicine companies and major Government reports. It is often being noticed that lots of patients with chronic diseases donÃ¢â¬â¢t response that much well in terms conventional treatments. They also used different histories of using marijuana as medicine around the world (Morgan, 201-206). This argument faced lots of opposition from different section of the American society. People are opposing very hard against this argument. Antagonists of these arguments are saying that marijuana is very dangerous for using medicinal purposes. It would make people additive about this dangerous habit. They also argue that already there are lots of legal drugs are present in the market. There is no reason for inclusion of marijuana into the lists of medicine. Anti people of this thought also argued that legalization of medicinal marijuana can give indulgence to harder and deadlier drugs. According to them Medicinal marijuana would destroy the in build immune system of human being. It can damage brain cells and can be problematic for lungs. People also argued that a particular group is trying to legalize medicinal use of marijuana only for entertainment purposes and there may be an unholy nexus of drug mafias. Medical marijuana is legal in 21 states of the USA. It is being noticed that maximum doctors across the USA still do not prescribe medicinal marijuana. Survey of WebMD has shown that almost 69% of the doctors and 52% of patients has supported different benefits of Marijuana. This report also recorded that 37% of patient is not confident about different benefits from
Monday, January 27, 2020
The Museum And Art Gallery Kelvingrove Tourism Essay The current study analyzes the visitor operations and experience in a detailed manner for Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum. The visitor operations and experience is handled in the current study in four different perspectives namely: Marketing Perspective, Management Perspective, Operations perspective and Quality Perspective. Marketing perspective starts with the approach of marketing strategies using 4 Ps technique for understanding the prevailing strategies for the organizations. Then, using the mentioned strategies the study shifts to the Kelvingrove museum art and gallery analysis for marketing strategies. Management perspective follows the marketing perspective analysis specific to Kelvingrove with the factors that influence the management success or failure. Then, it analyses the key functions that are implemented by the management of Kelvingrove in the art gallery with respect to the staff and the visitors experience. Third perspective that deals with the visitors attraction s and the operational activities that are performed in general is operational perspective. The second part of this deals with the analysis of how Kelvingrove manages the operations effectively that made them successful. The next part is to concentrate on the quality perspective which is being carried out in all the organizations but which is the key factor that needs to be taken utter care for performing in higher levels of standard. This is analyzed for Kelvingrove using the famous technique of SERVQUAL method. The current study then highlights the recommendations which though minor needs to be followed up by the museum organizations to be in a better position. Then, the study ends with the limitations to the current study which can be further studied if those were not restricted. INTRODUCTION The Museum and Art Gallery, Kelvingrove is run by the Culture and Leisure Services Department of Glasgow City Council. The Museum is housed in an impressive Category A listed building which was first opened in 1901 as part of the International Exhibition and is one of Glasgows landmarks. Kelvingrove is the most visited museum outside London, receiving over one million visitors a year in the last five years (Scottish Tourist Board). Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is an excellent place to visit with a vast collection of masterpieces of various people (Top-ten-Glasgow-guide, 2009).Ã Marketing Perspective Philip Kotler (2008:17) defines marketing as satisfying needs and wants through an exchange process. Marketing is an integrated process through which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return. Marketing is not just about selling. Peter Drucker (2004:34) explained, The aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. [It] is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. In addition the marketing management should be innovative while product development and calculating the added value. This would also ensure that the short run needs and long run requirements are balanced to meet the customer requirements and yield profits (Swarbroke, 1999:218). In the current study, we focus on marketing visitor attractions. A visitor attraction can be defined as somewhere worth leaving home for and this is as relevant to a single museum or cathedral as it is to a town or place. In a successful visitor attraction, the product on offer is the experience itself, spending money on that experience must be worthwhile. In the experience economy, the visitor attractions must continuously reinvent itself to have repeat visits and survive. This economy of experience is about quality, service and choice it is not about size. Successful visitor attractions of whatever size sells memories, experiences and expectations to individual customers. Hence it is important to have the right marketing mix for the product you are trying to sell. The term marketing mix refers to the primary elements that must be attended to in order to properly market a product or service. Also known as The 4 Ps of Marketing, the marketing mix is a very useful, if a bit general, guideline for understanding the fundamentals of what makes a good marketing campaign. (Hooley, 2008: 45-60). Four Ps Strategies: Product: A visitor attraction will have many different products on offer namely the permanent collection, temporary exhibitions, special events and educational resources for schools, colleges and universities. In addition to this, there are products such as the membership schemes, gift shops, cafes and corporate hire facilities. Place: Place is the location where the products or the customers output is ready for use. There are two key factors that a museum or a visitor attraction promotes with regards to its location: Excellent transport links by bus and train. Easy ticket booking facilities available onsite or online. Price: Price impacts strongly on how businesses fare competitively (Diamantopoulos et al., 1995). Hence price is considered as the key element in the marketing mix. There are different factors that affect pricing decisions for marketers namely organizational and marketing objectives; pricing objectives; costs; remaining marketing mix variables; channel member expectations; buyers perceptions; competition; legal and regulatory issues and perceived value. The following three aspects need to cover while determining price: standard admission fee, discounts on admission fee (discount percentage and conditions) and concessions provided mainly in public sector attractions to disadvantaged people. Promotion: This aspect of the marketing mix represents the possible tools used to communicate with and attract the target audiences. These can include: Advertising paying for adverts in newspapers, magazines and radio, and on poster sites Print producing banners, posters, leaflets and other items, and arranging distribution. Leaflets are sent to places such as libraries, tourist information offices, cafes and other places likely to be visited by the campaigns target audience. Direct mail sending leaflets or other print with a letter to named individuals, using in-house data bases or external lists of names which are either researched or bought. Sales promotion and brand partnerships promotions include offering prizes or discounts on tickets in collaboration with other parties, from newspapers and magazines to rail networks and coffee shops. Partnerships could involve window displays in shops, or branded giveaways. New media e-newsletters and website features Public relations (Kevin, 1994: 20) In this context, Kelvingrove has done a fantastic job in being the most popular museum in U.K outside London through its effective marketing plan. For the management, the key the primary challenge has been to encourage repeat visits and Kelvingrove has successful done so with new advanced features or quality improvements. Kelvingrove successfully underwent a re-development of its displays and visitor facilities. At Kelvingrove there are 200,000 objects with only 20,000 on display at any time within the gallery. After the refurbishment 50% more items are on display to the public. Lot of efforts have gone to ensure that Kelvingrove meets all the requirements pertaining to security, humidity control and lighting to attract major tours to Glasgow. Working on feedback from researchers who identified that a very large number of visitors to the gallery never left the ground floor, marketing experts have ensured that public gets more back space and have all the information to find way around the gallery. A Formal Educational Space for children and Childrens Discovery Centers and developments like these will be a major boost to schools, colleges and universities in and around Glasgow. The acquisition of knowledge is supported at various levels and the gallery is geared up for those who wish to explore subjects in more detail with support from staff with the availability of quiet self-study areas. At Kelvingrove there is now an Object Cinema and 22 themed galleries focusing on 100 different stories. These wonderful features are supported by an effective promotional campaign through vibrant brochures and hand-outs. Since, its an icon by itself, not much is spent on advertising through media. The museum sponsors for many events including sports and cultural activities. Kelvingrove uses the approach of newspapers and posters which is a modest way for marketing. The museum sponsors many events including sports and cultural activities and hosts various exhibitions. It has als o maintained its reach to the public through its website which is always providing updated and relevant information to potential visitors. These are the marketing strategies that Kelvingrove marketers follow. Figure: Goma Family Festival, 2009 (Source: Glasgow museums, whats on for families?) Management Perspective: The management has indirect impact on the visitors experience at the attractions. It directly impacts the employee attitudes and job satisfaction. The visitor management is the key aspect for the management to handle in different scenarios namely during the visit and before the visit. Museum and art galleries are defined by International Council of Museums as a non-profit institution, permanent institution in the service of society and its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its environment for the purposes of education, entertainment and study (ICOM Statutes art.3 para.1, 2007) . One of the major causes of dissatisfaction is connected with the process of management. Many of the staff members (employees) feel that their managers do not know how to manage because of the conflicting agenda or cause of stress and frustration. Better management skills and training would be valuable for overcoming these problems. Museums have a potential valuable resource where many managers appear to enjoy the creative aspects of their work. Here development and implementation of the required skills is an important issue. (Swarbroke, 1999: 50). MANAGEMENT STYLE: Management in all business areas and human organization activity is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. This is very much the case in places of visitor attractions as well. Good management may not be the measure of a good museum, butÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦would most certainly appear to be one of its critical prerequisites (Weil and Cheit, 1994: 289). A well-managed museum is one in which: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Everyone has a clear idea of the purpose of his or her work and its value to the museum; Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Staff works to a plan which has been devised for their area; Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Clear procedures are followed for the activities which they undertake; and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ Each section of the museum is involved in, and is responsible for, the efficient operation of its area. (Shostack, 1985: 25). Museum management can have different emphasis regarding service delivery depending on the prevailing management styles. The two different management styles are the custodial management and the market focused management. A successful museum management may require the right balance of the two styles. Recognition of the multi-dimensional nature of the museum experience and consideration of the values of both the roles is vital for the effective management of a museum. (Leask Yeoman, 1999: 38-42) At Kelvingrove the management has done an excellent job in utilizing the resources and capabilities at their disposal to make Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum Scotlands busiest visitor attraction last year according to VisitScotland. It excels in a number of areas a few of which are discussed below: Aesthetically displayed exhibits: Kelvingrove Museum has always enjoyed a unique position of its own in the world of heritage museums and recently with its imaginative and empathetic redesigning it has become more appealing to art lovers. Be it the gallant and fragile Spitfire hanging by a thread to show how desperately perilous those wartime raids must have been, the 40-foot dinosaur of the Rennie Mackintosh rooms or the story of the Scots POWs who painted icons on sacks: each of them keep you hooked with odd life-art juxtapositions and the credit goes to none other than the management team who has done a fantastic job in their maintenance. And with the recent reinvention, the museum has become much more organized than before. The doors now open in the basement. Thats the first of the changes. One enters through chic white vaults glowing with red and blue landing light and ascends by stairways fluttering with fabulous birds. The restaurant is a glass pavilion. The clutter of corridors has been rationalized. Light da nces more brightly round the vast halls now that the grime of a century has been scoured away to reveal brilliant blond sandstone. And a third more space has been created in which to display stunningly lit, in jewel-colored rooms nearly twice as many objects. Thus we see that quality has been the foremost focus of the management of Kelvingrove museum and the aim has always been to provide its visitors a life changing experience (Policy Strategic Planning, Glasgow Museums). Organizational Structure: A flat organizational structure ensures that communication is fast across levels and resolutions of operational and management issues take place at a quicker pace. It is a three tier structure with the deputy director heading the management. Furthermore the Culture and Sport Glasgow, which is responsible for museums in Glasgow, reports to a Board of 11 Directors, which comprises six elected members, four independent Directors and the Chief Executive of Culture and Sport Glasgow. Cross Functional Efficiencies: Functional units within the museum instead of working independently interacts and co-ordinates with each other to promote the museum and help the management to achieve their objectives. For instance the marketing department works along with the IT department to reach out to potential and incumbent visitors. Through various online and print publications and also through the website, relevant information about the museum and events surrounding it is made available to the general public. Supporting Activities: The management has also taken significant steps in providing various activities to the general public apart from the viewing of the museum. These range from general facilities like parking, cafe/restaurant, shops, guide assistance dogs to facilities for hosting corporate, and private events. There is also a Centre of New Enlightenment (TCoNE)Ã designed for young people aged from 10 to 14 years. It uses state-of-the-art equipment and dramatic presentations to explore the museum and its collections and help young people discover their potential. It has an Object Cinema located on the first floor. It is a multi-media centre using video, sound and lighting to tell the story behind a single object or a group of objects. The content will change on a regular basis. Thus we see that the management has taken utmost care of providing the most pleasant experience to visitors at Kelvingrove Art gallery and Museum and continuously tries to improve their service. Operations perspective: In visitors attractions operations management can be defined as a day to day management of the site. Although it appears to be a simple task of managing the site it involves many internal processes, which will help to manage the attraction more efficiently and effectively (Swarbrooke, 2002). According to Rogers Slinn (1993) cited in (Swarbrooke, 2002), operations management is concerned with the design, operation and control of the system that matches the organisations resources to customer service needs. According to Slack, Chambers et al. (1995) cited in Leask Yeoman (1999), resources can be classified into transformed resources which can be transformed or converted and transforming resources which will act upon the transformed resources. Transformed resources include materials, information and customers where as the transforming resources include facilities and staff. Operations management mainly concentrates more on using the available transforming resources like staff and mach inery to provide an efficient service for the customers. In visitor attractions effective management of operations will help in smooth and efficient operation of the site. Every one working within the site will be directly or indirectly involved in operation management (Swarbrooke, 2002). Generally operations management deals with real people and real issues within a practical environment. In visitors attractions operations management deals with many tasks like Design of the site. Management of visitors and capacity management. Staff training. Monitoring quality issues. The operations within an attraction site vary depending upon the organisation or its customer point of view (Leask Yeoman, 1999). From an organisation perspective operations management generally concentrates on increasing the visitors opportunities in the site, staff and visitors safety, low operational costs, looking after visitors with special needs within the available resources, ensuring to maintain high quality standards, compliance with the law and effective problem solving. However customers perspective of the operations might vary in different areas as the customers are not concerned about the operating costs, they generally look for minimized delays and queues and safety of visitors, high quality service and optimized visitor enjoyment regardless of costs, complaints should be dealt in a positive manner without any time delay. Many skills and attributes are required for effective operations management within a site like good knowledge of the site its staff and its usage by the visitors, paying attention in detail about the site, planning systems, procedures in advance and flexibility to change them in different circumstances, effective crises management, financial management, being firm but tactical, confidence on own abilities and judgement, seeing things from customers and staff perspective and looking for constant improvement. Operations management within an attraction site is to enhance the quality of visitors experience. Generally the areas which have a great impact might include the way the queues are managed, handling complaints in an effective and efficient way, solving problems quickly, steps to increase visitors enjoyment and their safety to make them feel positive to visit the site. There are constraints on operations management with in an attraction site which depends on: Operation manager attitude, experience, abilities. The attractions organisations structure, culture and beliefs. Availability of resources like skills of the staff and their freedom in order to solve the problems. Availability of financial resources. Legislation, regulations and social acceptability (Swarbrooke, 2002). Financial resources are funded by Glasgow City Council and are ahead of many national names like British Library and Tate Liverpool. The attractions include the opening of the Doctor with exhibition at the end of the month where Kelvingrove will be the centre of scientific universe. Bailie Liz Cameron, chairwoman of Culture and Sport Glasgow manages the museums and galleries said that These (as stated above) figures prove once again that Glasgows collections are of both national and international significance. We will continue to invest in our museums and art galleries, bringing new exhibitions to some of Scotlands most cherished attractions(Cameron, Glasgow News). The operations management should consider handling the operations such as minimize the risks associated with the display of art gallery and museum articles. They (Kelvingrove operations team) focus on the spending of visitors at various occasions. This is handled by museum by placing all the facilities and amenities which all aged people feel to spend money such as cafeteria, restaurant and some books related to history, some articles which can easily attract young generation which are stylish. They (operations team) not only considers these aspects of entertainment of making maximum profits from visitors but also the management should spend appropriately on labour, power sources etc. To handle the cost-in and cost-out schemes equally. They should also need to take care of providing special access to the disabled people or old people who are challenged but would like to visit the museum. All these activities are handled complying the laws and regulations in Scotland. The next aspect is about the Kelvingrove handles several minute things also in a big picture like: facility for car parking, toilets and elevators to be provided. And for the safety guidance, there are many fire exit points where the staff is trained to guide the visitors to the fire exit in case of fire. For addressing difficulties the visitors are facing or challenges they face during the visit or suggestions they would like management to keep an eye and improve better: All certain feedback can be submitted in a separate department for efficient handling of all the concerns. So, The operations management is either successful for Kevin grove as it follows and perfectly implements the functions namely problem-solving, resource management, risk management, visitor attractions, customer satisfaction and last but not the least: quality. Quality perspective: Generally in product related manufacturing industries quality is a product-led concept which concentrates on features and attributes of the product. The extent to which a product or service can satisfy wants and needs of a customer can be seen as a quality. According to Swarbrooke (2002) quality can be defined as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Quality is not only about the outcome of the product or service but also the whole processes that involves getting the outcomes. Quality in visitors attractions is all about offering a good service to the visitors. Quality at visitor attractions can be viewed in two ways as a set of outcomes visitors receive or the processes how the attraction operates. For example set of outcomes might include the physical appearance; the price the customer pays, service offered, safety, reliability and the number of complaints about the attractions. The process es include human resource management, hierarchy, culture style of management, and marketing style of the visitor attraction. When designing quality management systems there are three important questions that should be considered for attractions they are (i) definition of the quality the management will use (ii) performance standards and measurement system to be used (iii) the management systems they need to adopt for achieving quality. So attraction operators should pay attention to both process and outcomes in their quality management systems. The quality management system should include every aspect of management of attraction like tangible elements of the attraction which include buildings and structures, maintenance levels, comfort and security of visitors. Quality management within a visitor attraction can be viewed from both internal and external perspective. For example internal perspective includes the views of attraction managers for whom quality is smooth operation of attr action site and minimum customer complaints, attraction staff who sees quality as their terms and conditions of employment and few complaints to handle. The external perspective includes the views of customers who tend to see the quality in terms of how easy, safe and secure to use the site and the value for their money (Swarbrooke, 2002). Measuring Quality: In order to maintain quality service it is important to measure quality. Among the techniques available for service quality measurement SERVQUAL method developed by Parasuraman et al. in 1985 is the most popular. It is a technique that can be used to perform a gap analysis between an organizations service quality performance and the customers service quality needs. It is an empirically derived method that can be used by a service organization to improve its service quality. It takes into account the perceptions of the customers of the relative importance of service attributes. This allows an organization to prioritize and use its resources to improve the most critical service attributes. The methodology is based on 5 key dimensions: Reliability: This is an ability to deliver the service accurately and as promised. According to Zeithaml and Bitner (2000) it is the most important determinant. Responsiveness: to provide prompt service and willingness to help customers. Assurance: the trust and confidence customers will have on staff. Empathy: it covers care and individualized attention to customers. Tangibles: this includes physical facilities, equipment, machinery, personnel and infrastructure (Fitzsimmons, 1994). Quality is subjective and has different meanings to customers and service providers. From the staffs point of view quality is measured by the number of complaints registered from the customers, the fewer the number the higher is the quality of the service. However for the customer it is the environment and experience of the place with respect to the money spent which defines quality. The aim of the management is always to minimize the gap between these two and hence in order to measure quality Servqual is an effective tool under such conditions. In the following section we will try to use the tool to measure quality of the Kelvingrove Art gallery and Museum using the personal experience of the author. ASSESSMENT OF THE KELVINGROVE MUSEUM FOR QUALITY The author paid a visit to the museum recently to have a firsthand experience of the museum and its facilities. During the course of the visit he interacted with visitors to get their feedback on their experiences. In most of the cases the feedback varied from good to excellent, a number of them were thrilled with the experience the museum offered after the restoration. They were happy that the things were better organized, displays were in order, lighting was improved and overall the museum had improved aesthetically. On the five dimensions of Servqual, museum performed as follows: Reliability: After the restoration work, out of 20000 objects that were made for display, there were 50% of the objects being displayed with a number of nearly 8000 objects as promised. More back space has been provided to the public. Responsiveness: Staffs have been highly customer focussed and responsiveness level to customer discomfort has been very high. This is seen in the visitors rating who have rated Kelvingrove art gallery and museum as the best and rated 5 out of 5(Info and Reviews, Kelvingrove). Assurance: The organisation is particular with the awareness of the social inclusion. I observed during the visit to Kelvingrove that there are many educational activities like: training, volunteers, providing knowledge to the children about the history. Moreover all the staffs are knowledgeable about the exhibits and were courteous in explaining them to the visitors. These are as discussed above suit the role of assurance in the SERVQUAL approach for the museums. Empathy: Staffs are presentable and courteous and are always at the disposal of the customers. Tangibles: All the facilities and art works are neatly maintained From the above analysis, it is evident that Kelvingrove ranks high up in the list of places of attraction in Scotland. It is a cultural heritage and pride of Scotland. Recommendations: In spite of the fact the management of Kelvingrove is continuously trying to improve the service to the visitors there are still some areas where considerable improvement can be done. These are as follows: 1. Continuous training needs to be provided to staffs about the artefacts and exhibits at the museum so that they can provide the correct information when asked for by the visitors. A couple of times the author faced this issue during the visit 2. A few artefacts in the Italian Art Gallery do not have any description about them. Visitors may feel a sense of incompleteness when they dont get a descriptive narration of art works. 3. The day of visit of the author collided with a national holiday which drew a large number of visitors to the museum. However, to manage this large crowd customer assistance staffs were not sufficient. Management should look into this matter and probably fill this gap through part time staffs if not by full time to handle large crowds 4. Management should look into rationalizing the food price at the restaurant which appeared to be too costly. 5. Management should take adequate precaution and strictness when allowing children inside the museum as they were touching art work and might damage them. 6. Some of the artworks and other objects were hung in a manner which was crowded and distracting, for instance, the Vuillard. Moreover every painting in the Impressionist room had a horrid flip chart attachment projecting from the wall. 7. Titians Christ and The Adulteress and the Bellini Madonna could not be contemplated in silence because of the nearby narration concerning Botticellis Annunciation These recommendations should be addressed as soon as possible to wipe off any kind of blemishes on the otherwise extraordinary place of attraction in the heart of Glasgow. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: 1. The annual reports for the museum are very limited that are published in the website which are not sufficient to analyze the position of the museum in the current market. 2. Few of the managers were providing only certain amount of information and are not ready to give detailed information.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Introduction The Law provides for a free appropriate public education (FAPE) of exceptional children by assuring the financial support of teachers of special education and the administration of the program. The administration of special education at the macro level is assumed by the government and is usually carried out as one of the functions of the Department of Education (or a similar body). In the Philippines, the Department of Education (DepEd) is the principal government agency responsible for education and manpower development. The Department is primarily in charge of the formulation, planning, implementation and coordination of the policies, standards, regulations, plans, programs and projects in areas of formal and non-formal education. It provides for the establishment and maintenance of a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development through the public school system; and it also supervises all basic education institutions run by the private sector. The current Department structure consists of the Central Office and the field offices which consist of the regional and sub-regional levels. There are field offices in sixteen regions, each headed by a Regional Director; 157 provincial and city schools divisions, each headed by a School Division Superintendent; and 2,227 school districts headed by a District Supervisor. See more:Ã Perseverance essay The Special Education Division is lodged at the Bureau of Elementary and performs the following functions: formulates policies, plans and programs for the preparation of instructional materials; evaluation of programs in special education; conducts studies and develops standards of programs and services for special learners; plans for prototype in-service education programs to upgrade the competencies of administrators, supervisors, coordinators, teachers as well as the non-teaching special education personnel; and establishes/strengthens linkages with agencies concerned with the education and welfare of children with special needs. The Regional Director has the overall responsibility for the administration and supervision of special education at the regional level. The School Superintendent has the over-all responsibility for the administration and supervision of special education at the Division level and is assisted by the Division Supervisor. The District Supervisor supervises the school principals and other school administrators at the district level. The administrator of special education is appointed based on qualification standards set by the Department and provided with appropriations from the national funds. The Department also sets up a minimum standard for the qualification of teachers, and establishes the criteria for the selection of pupils for special education. In other countries like the US, education is primarily a State and local responsibility. The U. S. Department of Education is the agency of the federal government that establishes policy for, administers and coordinates most federal assistance to education. The Federal States and communities are responsible for establishing public and private schools and colleges; developing curricula; setting requirements for enrollment and graduation; determining state education standards; and developing and implementing testing measures to verify if schools are meeting their education standards. The structure of education finance in America reflects this predominant State and local role. Of an estimated $1. 1 trillion being spent nationwide on education at all levels for school year 2009-2010, a substantial majority will come from State, local, and private sources. The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) is lodged at the U. S. Department of Education and is responsible for monitoring state and local compliance to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) by providing leadership and financial support for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 years old. The law (IDEA) aims to ensure that all children receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE) and special services to assist in meeting their educational needs. IDEA authorizes formula grants to states, and discretionary grants to institutions of higher education and other nonprofit organizations to support research, demonstrations, technical assistance and dissemination, technology and personnel development and parent-training and information centers. These programs are intended to ensure that the rights of infants, toddlers, children, and youth withÃ disabilities and their parents are protected. Particularly, the OSEP conducts verification visits to states to review their systems for general supervision, data collection, and state-wide assessment. During these visits, OSEP staff work with state staff to ensure compliance and help improve the performance of federal programs. In addition, each state submits an annual performance report that reflects the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s actual accomplishments compared to its established objectives. As part of its monitoring, OSEP uses performance data such as graduation and dropout rates to identify low performing states. OSEP staff and OSEP-funded technical assistance centers work in partnership with states to put in place strategies to improve results for children with disabilities. At the micro level, the administration of special education is with the school principal. A recent policy thrust of the DepEd in the Philippines is the empowerment of the public school principals where the latter is able to assume more administrative authority and accountability for improving teaching competencies and pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ achievement. This policy gives principals the administrative authority to: manage the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s funds for maintenance and other operating expenses; raise additional funds for the school through Parent-Teachers and Community Associations; design and develop his/her own school improvement program in collaboration with parents and community leaders; participate in the selection, recruitment and promotion of teachers; plan and develop an innovative curriculum, using the national curriculum as a framework. For the private sector, the school owner together with a Board of Trustees acts as the school administration and defines the direction of the special education program; while it is assumed that they follow the guidelines set by the Department of Education to be duly recognized and credited as a teaching institution. But much of the responsibility for the success of an educational program rests in the administration. There may be proven needs, accepted philosophy, qualified personnel, and available facilities and resources; but without adequate administration, the entire organization may be one of confusion and misdirection. Programs of special education succeed in direct proportion to the efficiency of the administration. More often, when special education is introduced into a school system, the administrative plan usually does not install major changes in the existing organization. The responsibility for the program is often given to an Assistant Principal, a Director of Instruction, or some other administrator who already has many duties. Consequently, the administration of special education program becomes a major problem in the education of exceptional children. The Special Education Administrator The term Ã¢â¬Å"administrator of special education for exceptional childrenÃ¢â¬ is used to designate the school official directly in charge of the special education program. Regardless of the title, the job entails organizing the special education program, equipping the structures with adequate classrooms, employing specially trained classroom teachers, ensuring the proper placement of pupils who are not able to attend regular classes because of various handicaps, ensuring that a special academic instruction based on individual differences such as speech correction and any prescribed therapy (speech, hearing, occupational, and physical therapist, etc.). Most of the studies gathered determine who administers the special education programs (both in the public and private sector), what their functions are in regard to both administration and special education teachers, how much time they devote to the program, and whether they are administrators or supervisors. Rigsbee (2008) did a research on what makes a good school-based administrator and interviewed teachers, support staff, parents, and students from a number of school communities in North Carolina. The results of the study indicate that there are characteristics common across school levels and community demographics such are: the principal should be accessible and build Ã¢â¬Å"a community of caringÃ¢â¬ where students feel at home, there is an air of connectedness, sense of teamwork, a family atmosphere, and frequent celebrations so work becomes fun for everyone. Rigsbee (2008) furtherÃ explained that the administrator must treat the teachers, cafeteria staffs, custodians, and office staff as professionals; give the staff a Ã¢â¬Å"big pictureÃ¢â¬ understanding of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and let them know that they are valued for the work they are doing for the children. Lastly, Rigsbee (2008) adds that they develop leaders and do not micro-manage; they work diligently to ensure that their teachers are equipped to be leaders in the classroom; and they Ã¢â¬Å"distributeÃ¢â¬ leadership as they serve as important mentors to assistant administrators and teacher leaders to achieve the vision of the school. Special education administrators play an important role in the education of disabled students. They are responsible for overseeing programs and services for students with learning, physical, behavioral or linguistic disorders. Additional job duties in the field range from ensuring adherence to federal, state and local special education regulations to helping teachers provide the unique services special education students need. Knowledge and Compliance to the Laws on Special Education. In a study by Saravanabhavan and Pressley (2008) on Ã¢â¬Å"Preparing Leadership in Special EducationÃ¢â¬ , they assessed the school principals in Florida and noted that school principals must have a thorough knowledge of special education practices to ensure that students receive adequate services, and teachers receive pertinent guidance and support for their students to become high academic achievers. Saravanabhavan and Pressley (2008) proposed the need for school and district administrators to be educated not only in the foundations of special education, but also in the legal aspects related to compliance and enforcement of special education services, as well as instructional methodologies, and student placement, in order to enhance their efficacy in servicing their students. In another study, McMullen (2001) investigated the knowledge of MississippiÃ¢â¬â¢s high school principals regarding the IDEA Amendments of 1997 in regard to four aspects: (a) disciplining students with disabilities, (b) involving parents and students in decision making, (c) adhering to procedural safeguards and placing students in the least restrictive environment, and (d) impacting administrative practice. The study (McMullen, 2001) concludedÃ that although the principals demonstrated some knowledge of the law, they did not appear to have sufficient knowledge to fully implement the Act, thus, proposed for a comprehensive training that will enforce a paradigm shift from the old Public Law 94-142 to the newly reauthorized law for a more positive attitude toward the provision of services to children with disabilities. It is worth noting the need for administrators of special education program to be aware of their legal obligations to students with disabilities in after-school athletics and extracurricular activities. Fetter, et. al. (2008) cited that administrators in public schools are undoubtedly familiar with their duties under federal law to serve students with disabilities in the educational program. But only a few know whether students with disabilities are entitled to participate in athletics and other after-school activities, and if so, are not aware of what types of services and accommodations school officials and coaches should provide (Fetter, et. al. , 2008). The authors (Fetter, et.al. , 2008) said that the failure to sufficiently work through these issues leaves school districts vulnerable to costly litigation; and in addition to juggling the complicated legal issues related to serving students with disabilities who participate in athletics and extracurricular programs, many administrators are taking aggressive steps to promote healthy school communities by implementing body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening measurement programs. The study concluded that while these programs offer an innovative approach to encouraging good health, they raise additional issues for busy administrators; it is therefore imperative that administrators should be aware of the common traps, and practical ways to comply with the law (Fetter, et. al. , 2008). The US law, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), stipulates that educational leaders must ensure that special and general educators use scientifically based instructional methodologies like applied behavioral programming, task analysis, direct instruction, and cognitive-behavior modifications in order to address the cognitive needs of the students. The proper implementation of the IDEA or any law for that matter is enforced by leaders who have thorough knowledge of the law and are able to use these toÃ enhance the performance and welfare of their constituents. The IDEA was revised in an effort to clarify the discipline mandates because it needed to be more consistent in the practices when disciplining students with special needs. However, Principals continue to misinterpret the law or avoid it altogether. As indicated in the studies below, it is apparent that knowledge of the disability laws and how it is put into practice are depended upon each other. In a study to determine the relationship between Georgia elementary school principalsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of disability laws and the practices used for disciplining students with special needs as mandated in the IDEA, Claxton (2002) used the Individualized Educational Programs (IEP), Behavioral Management Plans (BMP) or Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIP), and Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) in the research. The Principals were given the opportunity to provide comments about discipline and the procedures they used for students with special needs. The study also examined various demographics including age, gender, original college degree, administrative degree level reached, and years of experience in administration in relationship to the knowledge held of disability laws and the practices used by Georgia elementary school principals for disciplining students with special needs; ANOVA was used to examine each demographic variable (Claxton, 2002). The results showed that the Georgia elementary school principals used discipline practices in line with the parts of IDEA 1997 with which they were most familiar but it did not indicate any significant difference in the principalsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge and practice (Claxton, 2002). Because principals or their assistants are responsible for enforcing discipline and are on the front line in terms of student safety, they are often conflicted about how to proceed when a student with a disability needs to be disciplined. Moreover, many principals need to be reminded that they are not the sole arbiter of discipline decisions for students with disabilities. The administrator should make an effort to include families by offering various opportunities for parents, advisory councils, and a multidisciplinary team to take part in varying venues (open house nights, question-and-answer sessions, and frequent communication via phone messages, emails, and publications). In another study conducted by Stephens and Joseph (2001) in the School Study Council of Ohio (SSCO) using an informal phone survey to assess the knowledge of randomly selected Central Ohio principals, special education administrators, and teachers; they were asked to rate their assessment of what level of knowledge principals needed in order to do their jobs effectively. A three-level scale was used: (1) no knowledge required; (2) a basic, working knowledge required; and (3) intimate knowledge required in four basic categories: Instruction and Programming, Placement Procedures, Federal and State Laws and Regulations, and Procedural Safeguards (Stephens and Joseph, 2001). The results showed that the perceived roles of principals differed when viewed by district level special education personnel and practitioners and these views where all in contrast to the self assessment of the principals (Stephens and Joseph, 2001). The findings elaborated the problems of principals regarding lack of knowledge includes the following: the education of the handicapped; managing the diversity of students with disabilities; mainstreaming and inclusion strategies; large-scale assessment and accountability (Stephens and Joseph, 2001). Administrative Competency and Leadership. Lowe & Brigham (2000) stated that numerous special education authorities have cited the importance of the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to be the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s instructional leader. In special education, the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s role as the instructional leader will often determine the efficacy and the quality of special education services. But research and authoritative opinion generally reveal that principals are not sufficiently knowledgeable about important aspects of the education of students with disabilities. A major explanation as to why they are typically uninformed about special education is that their professional preparation may be inadequate. According to Lowe & Brigham (2000), most school administrators do not receive sufficient training to supervise the instructional practices used by special educators. In an effort to both validate and consolidate previous work in the area of critical skills for principals in relationship to special education, Stevenson-Jacob, et. al. (2006) asked elementary and middle school principals what they considered to be critical competencies. Information was gathered on the principalsÃ¢â¬â¢ background, training, assignments, and specific practices related to administering special education at the building level; and it was found that elementary and middle school principals agreed on eight critical competencies that principals need: (1) managing the education of students in the less restrictive environment (LRE); (2) collaborative teaching strategies; (3) the case study approach; (4) general/special education procedures; (5) parent rights; (6) state/federal requirements; (7) state/federal statues: and (8) recruitment, selection, orientation, and supervision of staff (Stevenson-Jacob, et. al. , 2006). To help administrators increase their awareness and sensitivity with issues that affect their interaction in the school, Hoy & Miskel (2001) conducted a survey with students with special needs, their teachers, and their parents in the school district. The study concluded that administrators who would like to become more competent with curriculum delivery issues must participate fully in the planning processes of the IEP and IFSP because by engaging in this process it signals its importance and administrators gain a more complete understanding of the curricular issues that face parents such as: tasks that are too difficult for the child; homework assignments that are too long and that require prerequisite skills; implementation strategies that work and should be continued; teachers who are either unwilling or unable to make accommodations for students with special needs (Hoy & Miskel, 2001). The major barrier seems to be lack of systematic and sustained programs for professional development in special education tailored to the needs of the special education administrator or principal. Therefore, educational leaders must be knowledgeable of the special education placement continuum to ensure that students receive instruction in the environment that will maximize their academic and social skills. In order to eliminate increasing challenges and to maximize quality of services provided to children with disabilities, it is vital to prepare school leaders and administrators with sound knowledge based in special education. Course work in the foundations of special education and legal aspects of special education along with advocacy for children with special needs ought to become a core area in school leadership preparation. The administrator preparation programs should place more emphasis and time on core special education competencies for principals who can effectively lead special education programs in schools. School principals must have the opportunity and the incentive to participate in sustained and systematic special education programs. Attitude toward SPED Programs and Practices. Goddard & Goddard (2000) cited the highly important roles that administrators play in the education and lives of children with disabilities as they evaluated how the administrators are impacting on the progress of the students with special needs. The result of their study emphasized that administrators can create a climate that supports all students with the awareness of key concepts in special education and important curriculum and environmental considerations that will enhance instruction (Goddard & Goddard, 2000). They (Goddard & Goddard, 2000) further explained that issues pertinent to the population of special needs students demand the focused time of concerned and knowledgeable administrators, and as such, will encourage the development of programs that will increase accessibility like: flexible course schedules, stipends or scholarships to cover costs of tuition, materials, child care, transportation, distance learning and video-conferencing technologies. Another area of special education that principals need to know and understand is the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"inclusionÃ¢â¬ and what an inclusive philosophy should reflect. The principal is the educational leader of the school, and as such, his or her attitude and philosophy regarding students with special needs sets the tone and is critical for determining how students with disabilities access the general education curriculum. Inclusion has been introduced way back in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s and the law has been explicit about the regulations in terms of a continuum of services; however, many inexperienced principals still have difficulty interpreting what this means. Salisbury and McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s study (2002) of five elementary schools engaged in inclusive practices showed personal attributes similar to those found in the transformational leaders. The transformational leader, according to Salisbury and McGregor (2002) had Ã¢â¬Å"a greater impact on teacher motivation to perform beyond expectationsÃ¢â¬ ; and the behaviors associated are charisma, inspiration, and consideration of individual teacher needs while they strive to develop shared values and beliefs, meanings, and commitment to common goals. The study further showed that principals Ã¢â¬Å"tended to be leaders who shared decision-making power with their staff, extended the core values of inclusiveness and quality to initiatives throughout the school, and actively promoted learning communities and change through collaborative, intentional, and supportive practicesÃ¢â¬ (Salisbury and McGregor, 2002). In another study done by Kuaun (2002), which attempted to describe the profile of the school administrators (age, gender, civil status, educational attainment and length of service) and verified any significant difference on the perception of school administrators from regular schools with SPED classes and from SPED schools regarding the inclusion of children with special needs. The researcher employed the descriptive method utilizing a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information from 66 respondents and 48 close-ended type of questions about inclusion; and administered them to sixty-six (66) school administrators (36 from regular schools with SPED classes and 30 from SPED schools) from twenty-two (22) schools in Metro Manila (Kuaun, 2002). The findings indicated that majority of the school administrators are female, married, aged 51 to 60, with an educational attainment of MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree (from the regular schools with SPED classes) and Masteral units (from special education schools); and that majority from the regular schools with SPED classes have served longer as school administrators than the respondents of special education schools (Kuaun, 2002). Finally, the study concluded that both groups appeared to have a positive perception on inclusion of children with special needs as indicated by a no significant difference on the means scores in their inclusion perceptions (Kuaun, 2002),. This positive outlook towards inclusion was manifested in the study of Causton-Theoharis and Theoharis (2008); they cited that inclusion and the sense of belonging are seen as essential conditions for educating each child. The commitment of the principal under study implemented an inclusive philosophy which meant no self-contained special education classrooms, no resource room pullout programs, no kids sent to other schools (Causton-Theoharis and Theoharis, 2008). All the kids (kids with significant disabilities, kids with autism, kids with serious behavior issues, kids with learning disabilities, kids in wheelchairs, kids who were high flyers, kids who were learning English) needed to be an essential member of the classroom and school community; thus, the general education teachers and specialists (special education, English as a second language, reading, etc. ) had to co-plan and co-teach (Causton-Theoharis and Theoharis, 2008). The same staff was used but arranged differently in all aspects of the school which included: the after-school programs, reading interventions, the physical arrangement of classrooms and dramatic changes on the playground (Causton-Theoharis and Theoharis, 2008). Because of the special education administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to educate all their students together, the school under study realized the substantial achievement gained by bringing students with disabilities in the center of the discussion about school reform and in the center of the general education classroom. In another research, the findings of McClean (2007) revealed that many administrators are willing to accept having inclusive schools; and most believed that schools are generally ill- equipped to run inclusive programs. Based on the study McClean (2007) conducted in Barbados, about (20%) twenty percent of the administrators surveyed believed that students with disabilities should be educated in special schools or classrooms only because they shared in the opinion that the inclusion of students with disabilities would retard the progress of students in the general education classroom. While majority of administrators, (80%) eighty percent, wanted to have inclusive programs in their schools but were uncertain how to implement and manage these programs without the appropriate mechanisms for success (McClean, 2007). The study further discussed that the success of inclusion is determined by the principals and the teachers (whether special or regular education) who are committed to providing the necessary support; are giving the vital input to make the inclusive process their own; and are not threatened or disadvantaged by the implementation and management of any inclusive programs at their respective schools (McClean 2007). The study concluded that the success of inclusion will ensue by winning the hearts and minds of all stakeholders which include the principals, teachers, parents and students, officials of the Ministry of Education and the wider communities. AbellÃ¢â¬â¢s study (2006) examined the attitudes and factors valued by Kentucky directors of special education (DOSE) who are currently implementing the universal design for learning (UDL) principles within their school districts to further enhance the inclusion of student with special needs. The purpose of the study was to provide new information to DOSEs by researching leadership issues and aspects involving district level UDL implementation. Department level professional development and technology implementation issues were also explored. The survey was sent to the 176 respondents and the result found no significant differences in DOSEÃ¢â¬â¢S gender, education level, or years of administrative experience in relation to the DOSES own level of educational innovation (Abell, 2006). The study showed that the UDL implementation was found to be significant with regards to district acquisition of curriculum in digital formats and the technology infrastructure to run it but it was not a significant predictor, likewise, there was no significant relationship between DOSEs knowledge of UDL in relation to the size of their district special education population (Abell, 2006). The Universal Design for Learning principles call for curriculum flexibility in relation to content presentation, student expression, and student engagement. UDL is a new approach for teaching, learning, and assessment, that draws on brain research and new media technologies to respond to individual learner differences (Center for Applied Special Technology, 2008). It is important to the field of special education that administrators are open and flexible to various strategies to find the best possible intervention for students with exceptional needs in an inclusive setting. The studies raised important points, because administrators play a pivotal role in setting the climate in schools. School administrators who believed in integration created program options for its promotion; while those opposed to it have even sabotaged any efforts. A supportive school climate can also be enhanced when administrators set the occasion for teachers to have mastery experiences with the curriculum and with studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progress in the curriculum. Administrators who are knowledgeable about the curricular needs of students with disabilities and how special education and general education curricula intersect will be better prepared to face the challenges of educating all students successfully. There are hosts of ways that administrators can become familiar with current and emerging issues in special education. This was validated by Bakken, et. al (2006) in their study Ã¢â¬Å"Changing Roles of Special Education Administrators: Impact on Multicultural Learners. Ã¢â¬ Bakken, et. al (2006) mentioned that special education administrators must take active part in the education of their students and they suggested the need to develop and practice highly effective communication skills because they believe that effective partnerships are built on communication. Other important considerations include an awareness of best practices in special education, effective instructional presentation strategies, curricular adaptations that support individual student progress and a variety of evaluation methods. By being student-centered; students know when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re cared about and know when an administrator makes a difference in a school and in their lives. It is evident that supporting students with special learning needs is more successful when the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude is positive and sympathetic. At the same time it must be recognized that a great deal of effort and time go into building a successful service delivery of special education programs. It takes a strong instructional leader to ensure that all children are able to succeed and achieve in class. It takes a strong instructional leader to ensure that all children and their teachers receive the supports and services they need to learn and develop. It also takes a strong instructional leader to create a positive learning climate that embodies a unifying philosophy of respect for all children and stakeholders in the total school community. Problems encountered. Tate (2009) conducted a survey of 108 special education administrators in North Carolina in order to identify their characteristics (which included licensure, teaching experience, LEA information, and personal demographics) and factors that contribute to their staying or leaving the field using two open-ended questions that addressed the least and most satisfying.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Have you ever been separated from your family? What if living wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t guaranteed? The holocaust killed over eleven million people. The purpose of the holocaust was to eliminate the entire Jewish race. In Night, by Elie Wiesel, Elie and his family were separated. Elie was forced to take care of his father while his mother and sister were killed. The JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ freedom, identity, and sense of hope were taken from them to make the Jews feel less than human. Is freedom really free? In Night, they lost their freedom when the Germans made a new edict that stated, Ã¢â¬Å"All Jews are prohibited from leaving their house for three days under penalty of death (page 10). Ã¢â¬ Also, the Germans stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"From this moment on, you [Jews] are under the authority of the German Army (pages 23-24)Ã¢â¬ . Without the JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ freedom they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight back. With that in mind, the Germans took away the JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of hope as well. In order to do this, however, the Germans practically starved all the Jews to death; Ã¢â¬Å"At that moment in time, all that mattered to me was my daily bowl of soup and crust of stale bread (page 52). Ã¢â¬ The Germans also killed most of the Jews for little things like backtalk, taking an extra ration of food, or pilfering from the kitchen. To make the Jews feel less than human, the Germans took away their identities. They did this by taking away their name and referring to them as only a number. They even tattooed that number onto their skin. This was so the Jews would not forget that the Germans were of more value then they were, and that Germans were worth more than just a number and worth more then Jewish people in general. Another way was by placing them all in one type of surrounding (concentration camps). Also by forcing them all to wear a yellow star to show the world that they were Ã¢â¬Å"JewsÃ¢â¬ . By doing that they were hoping to eventually break them down and make them feel ashamed for being Jewish. This is what the Jewish people went through, and the hardships every single Jew must go through to, hopefully, see the sun tomorrow. Freedom is of no use anymore. Identity has vanished into thin air. The JewsÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of hope turned into ashes along with them. If you were there, in ElieÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes, would you want to keep on living?